Pura Goa Gajah (Goa Gajah Temple)

by on December 13, 2011

Elephant Cave located west of the Village Bedulu, Blahbatuh district, Gianyar regency, about 27 km from Denpasar City. Goa is built on the brink of a meeting of a small river, whose waters are Kali Pangkung then mixed with river water flowing beneath Petanu. Regional meeting of two rivers called ‘Campuhan’ or a mixture is considered to have magical power based on the concept of ‘RwaBhineda’ based on this concept seems to Goa Gajah then deliberately built between two rivers.

Goa Gajah word probably derived from the word “LwaGajah”, name of the monastery or hermitage for monks in the Buddhist religion. The name was there in the palm Negarakertagama compiled by the mpu Prapanca in 1365 AD. LWA or Lwah / Loh means river. Therefore it is meant here is the hermitage is located on the river or in the water Elephant Elephant. In the year 944 Saka inscription mentioned the name of “ser ring Air Gajah ‘, which means the head of Subak in Water Elephant. It signaled that the hermitage “LWA Elephant” is located in the subak Water Elephant. In the inscription Saka year 1103 issued by the king Jayapangus stated that “Water Elephant” is a retreat for priests of Shiva. Based on these data it can be concluded that the hermitage of Goa Gajah is now named in the past named:

1. AirGajah the hermitage for the minister of Shiva

2. LwaGajah the hermitage, the monk or a Buddhist priest.

In addition to name and Lwa Gajah AirGajah, also mentioned hermitage “Antakunjarapada” Dawan is the inscription 975 Saka and Pandak Bandung in 993 Saka. Judging from the sense of the word, then “Kunjara” means elephant, anta means end or limit, on means a place or region. When combined, this word means “elephant border region”, it means perhaps the hermitage is located on the borders of the subak “water elephant” on the basis of these estimates it is the hermitage “Antakunjarapada” no other is the elephant cave hermitage itself. So, in the past century Goa Gajah has 3 pieces designation to name hermitage located in the border region Subak ‘AirGajah’ this is; Water Elephant (in the name of the ancient Malay language or ancient Bali), LwaGajah (name of the ancient Javanese language), and AntaKunjaraPada (name in Sanskrit).

The following will be elaborated conception of the name Goa Gajah. Goa Gajah hermitage whose name in Sanskrit Antakunjarapada can be connected with the monastery, located south tip of India, called ‘KunjaraKunja’. Hermitage is located in the slopes of the forest “Mount Kunjara” the hermitage or ashram (place of residence Rsi Agastya, now called Agastya-malai. In the area flows a river called Tamraparni. Kunjarakunja when the mean is; Kunjara = elephant, Kunja = forest . hermitage Rsi Agastya named Kunjarakunja that is the conception of naming “Goa Gajah” so design of ¬†Goa Gajah in order in such a way as to describe a monastery located in the wild mountains.

Structure and Relief cave elephants can be explained as follows Goa Gajah T-shaped structure consisting of: (a) The outside of a vertical-shaped hall, divided into 2 parts, and in each section pick the 2 pieces niche. (b) Section in the main room has 11 pieces niche, is horizontal. At the western end, there is a statue of Lord Ganesha, while at the east end is 3 pieces Linga on a pedestal, each phallus is surrounded by a small phallus.

Therefore, the hermitage of Goa Gajah is an artificial form of asceticism Kunjarakunja in southern India, in the mountain forest areas kunjara the hermitage of the Rsi Agastya, the reliefs carved in the hermitage of Goa Gajah is a natural mountain carvings. Among these reliefs there are trees with branches with leaves are dense, forest-dwelling animals such as wild boar jungle, turtles, birds, lizards, snakes, frogs, cows, and a ghost that seems to creep up slopes of the mountains and lurk in the corners of the forest area into his territory. In the mouth of Goa, at the entrance decorated with carved heads with an eye to eye when glancing to the right or kebarat.pada mouth of the cave was on the left or east wall there is a short writing “letters to the type or Kadiri Kadiri squared” from the early 11th century. When the function, identical to Bhoma contained on the gate of a temple, to maintain the sanctity of the hermitage, and provide protection against cave itself. Can be added that this cave was discovered in 1923, which previously covered with bushes and trees so that its existence is hidden as a relic of the past.

A few yards from the mouth of the cave, in the middle of the page cave, there is a pool “Patirthaan” place to take the holy water for ritual purposes. Purification pond was originally buried in the ground, have been found / dug in 1954 by Mr.. Krijgsman from the Office of Archaeology and ancient at the time. Purification pool is equipped statues “Widyadara and Widyadari” (angels) who arranged lined up in two groups of three and three of six statues (statues of five of them have been put back). Maybe once in the beginning, there are seven statues fountain, a statue located in the middle as interrupters which until now not known with certainty. The existence of seven statues fountain, based on the concept of “Sapta titha” which is seven holy water which has a purity equal to the pulse Sapta purified seven rivers namely the Ganges, the river Sindhu, Saraswati river, the river Yamuna, the river Godawari, Serayu rivers, and the river Narmada.

It is significant that the symbolic, taking water from each shower has a sacred value such as the sacred Saptanadi.

Heritage site of Pura Goa Gajah

Archaeological heritage of Goa Gajah Hermitage there are two types;

  1. Northern elephant cave complex, is essentially the Hermitage of the priests of Shiva. This is supported by the presence of three or Tri Lingga, phallus in a single pedestal at the heart of worship dedicated to the god Shiva performance vertical aspect as Tri Purusa: Siva, Sada Shiva, and Parama Shiva. In Addition to Tri Lingga, in this T-shaped chamber, also found statues of the god Ganesh. God Ganesha is seen as the god of danger so repellent, he also Called the god Wighnapati. In Addition, he also Considered the god of wisdom / wisdom in this task he Called Wiyanaka gods. He also Called the god of gods Ekadanta Because the fanged one of the fangs have been broken Pls used as weapon in defeating the giant Nilarudraka Supposedly That can not be killed by ordinary weapons. The attitude of the statue of the god Ganesh sitting by Bringing your toes Called Wirasana braid symbolizes Heroism, eksamala / genitri or beads composed of interwoven strands of jewels symbolizes science items are always That Carried in his right hand, is an attribute of the wisdom of the god Ganesh. Front right hand Ganesha statues bring a canine fracture fracture of the attribute as a symbol of appetite giant. Which also symbolizes or as a characteristic of wisdom, is a bowl on the front left hand filled with water are sucked through the proboscis, the which means That science must be studied and searched. Other attributes of the statue of Ganesha, which is Parasu means ax, the which is Carried by the rear left hand as a trait That he is the god of repelling danger.
  2. The complex of southern elephant Goa, is a Buddhist ascetic place for priest. This was confirmed the existence of: (a) a three-pronged pedestal, each of which supports the Stupa (this relief has collapsed can be seen on the slopes of ravine near the river 15 meters from the mouth of cave elephants), and each peak of the stupa a number of umbrella arrangement, or Catra . At the base of the stupa are included pedestal, decorated with lotus flowers reminiscent of Stambha (monument) Blanjong Sanur from the year 913 AD. (b) niches among which there are statues of Dhyani Buddha Amitabha who view westward ruler. (c) The image of Goddess Hariti in the Buddhist religion as a lover, who prior to the teachings of Buddha, is very fond of eating the flesh of the flesh, especially the children. Hariti Goddess statue can be seen on the right the mouth of Elephant cave, the shrine with a statue of a woman surrounded by children.

Functions of Pura Goa Gajah

Based on the archeological record, as the findings of the surface as mentioned above, and on the basis of the results of excavations conducted in 1955, it can be concluded that the function Goa Gajah is a hermitage, and the Shiva temple for the priests, while the complex Goa Gajah the south, to the pastor Buddha or a monk.

Periodization of Goa Gajah

Period of manufacture Goa Gajah hermitage, can be known based on (1) a brief inscription engraved on the east wall of the cave mouth in the form of writing letters using the square of the initial kediri 11th century, which reads “Kumon Sahy Wangsa”. (2) the relief of the stupa with pedestal, decorated with lotus flowers found on the cliffs of southern Goa gajah complex, which forms and similar decorative ‘sthamba’. Blanjong, Sanur, from the year 913 BC, proving that the reliefs of the stupa in the complex were from the beginning Goa gajah ke10 century.

Based on the above data, it can be concluded that the construction of a monastery and temple complex in Goa gajah began on 10 -11 th century during the reign of King Udayana, who became King of the years 989-1022 AD. These conclusions were reinforced by data that in the reign of Udayana are forecast royal advisory prakira-kiran i jro makabehan whose members include the Reverend Pastor of Shiva and Buddha named “Shiva Mpungku Sogota ‘members consisting of Reverend Shiva called” Dang Acarya “number of members 12 people, and members of the Buddhist priest named “Dang Upadhyaya” number of members of only 4 people. It seems that those who use Goa gajah as a hermitage and monastery at the time.

Mithologi of Linga at Pura Goa Gajah

The origin of the Linga Purana and described in texts such as:

  1. Linga Purana, describes when the end kalpha = one time, the god Vishnu chat with god Brahma, the first origin of this earth. Brahma approached Lord Vishnu and said, that himself as the creator of all that exist in this world. In this regard, the god Vishnu then replied that he was also the architect, the creator of all that exists. Brahma did not recognize the statement god Vishnu, as well as the god Vishnu, the two clashed. Immediately there appeared a phallus-shaped flame of the universe. While the god Brahma and Vishnu agreed, to find the top and bottom phallus. Therefore the god Brahma transformed into a swan, then flew to find the peak Lingga, the god Vishnu transformed into a pig into the earth to find basic phallus. Both gods are not able to find the base and top of the Lingga. And then admitted that he was not the greatest, and that there is a greater than themselves. Then the god Shiva appeared in the Lingga, then gods deities Brahma and Vishnu worship him. Furthermore, the god Shiva says that you both Brahma and Vishnu, it was I who gave birth to you, Brahma of my right hip and Vishnu from my left hip, the three of us actually one but we are now separated into three aspects: Brahma, Vishnu, Maheswara. Linga is generally placed in a hole Yoni, there is a rectangular shape, rectangle, or round. Yoni was on the top there is a channel with the mouth facing north, resembles a shower as a place to drain the holy water, if done worship ceremony. Links to the channel called Linga Yoni is called ” Sanghyang Lingga Pranala”, symbol of the god Shiva meeting with the goddess Parvati who symbolizes creation, fertility, prosperity and purification of mala (impurities) in order to reach Jiwan Mukti of serenity and inner peace.

Korawasrama, recounts the origins of the Lingga, which is similar to the description above story with slight variations, that when the god Vishnu in the form of a black pig enters the earth in an effort to find the basis of the linga. Lord Vishnu is only met with Wasundari goddess (goddess of the Earth or the goddess of Earth). Goddess of the Earth in the form of beautiful girls were weaving a thread of black and white, the god Vishnu was charmed, forget yourself and still bodied pigs and immediately met with the Earth goddess. From this meeting (short story) was born a son who faced grim-named “Bhoma” which means the birth of the goddess of Earth, which meant jungle trees. Based on the above description, apparently guards Bhoma is a symbol of wilderness, so called also Banaspati (wana means forest) in order to remain sustainable forests, because forests are a source of prosperity / fertility.

This post was written by Ade Nan

who has written 69 Articles on Bali Java Tour.

Ade Nan is CEO Marketing of Bali Java Tour, through this blog site seeks to share experiences, knowledge of adventures tour on Bali-Java Islands of Indonesia...read more>>

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